Open Access
Review

Table 3

Details of process parameters.

Particle Substrate Propellant gas Particle diameter (μm) Temperature (°C) Pressure (MPa) Nozzle throat diameter (mm) Nozzle length (mm) Ref.
Ag SS347(grit blasted) Air 15–50 250–450 1–2 [92]
Al Al(pickled) He 20 20 1.5–2 [93]
Al Al 2–20 [94]
Al Al2024 T351(grit blasted) N2 5–50 230 3.45 2 168 [95]
Al1100 Al1100 He + N2 1–30 227–527 2.1 [96]
Al2618 Al(grit blasted) He <25 20 1.7 [97]
Al2618 Al6061(grit blasted) He 25–38 20 1.4 [98]
Al7075 Al5052(grit blasted) N2 500 1.6 2 [99]
Al AZ91 Mg He 15 200 0.62 [100]
Al AZ91D(sand blasted) Air 1–40 230 1.6 2 × 4 [101]
Al101 AZ91D(grit blasted) He 6–174 300 0.98 [102]
Al Brass(sand blasted) Air 40; 60; 80 204–371 2 3 80 [103]
Al Ni Air ∼80 280 0.7–2.5 1 [104]
Al Sn He 15–75 20 2.5 [47]
Al Cu [47]
Al Al6063 [47]
Al Brass [47]
Al Bs B01 [47]
Al SS1040 [47]
Al Al2O3 [47]
Cu Al6061(polished) N2 300 1.5 [82]
Cu Al6082(polished) He 5–25 20 3 1.35   [105]
Cu Cu(grit blasted) Air 75 500 2.5 [106]
Cu Cu(grit blasted) He 1.32 [107]
Cu Cast iron N2 1–50 600 2.7 [108]
Cu SS400(grit blasted, polished) Air 5–50 300 3 2 50 [109]
Cu SS AlSI304(polished) Air 5; 10; 15 250–650 0.4–1 2 130 [110]
Cu Al6063(polished) Air 5; 10; 15 250–650 0.4–1 2 130 [110]
Cu SS AISI 304 (4000C-Polished) He 5; 15 20; 400 0.2–1 2 130 [110]
Inconel 625 SS 304(grit blasted) N2 38–15 500 3.2–3.3 [111]
Inconel 718 Mild steel(grit blasted) N2 33 800 3.5 [112]
Ni Steel(grit blasted) N2 5–22 600 3 [32]
SS 304 Steel(Interstitial free) N2 52 450–550 3 [113]
SS 316L Al N2 18–25 500 4 [114]
SS 316L Al N2 28–45 600 4 [114]
SS 316L Al N2 36–53 720 4 [114]
SS 316L Al7075 T6(pickled) N2 20–40 600–800 2–4 [115]
Ta Al(cleaned) N2 10–30 800 3.8 [116]
Ta Steel(grit blasted) N2 10–30 800 3.8 [116]
Ti Al(grit blasted) N2 370–480 2.7 [117]
Ti Al6063 TS He 22 600 1.5 [118]
Ti Al2O3 N2 25 450 2.5 2.7 [33]
Ti Mild steel(sandblasted) N2 38–44 155–263 2 2 100 [71]
Ti Mild steel(polished) He 38–44 255 1 2 100 [71]
Ti Iron(polished) He <25 20 2.9 1.35 100 [80]
Ti Mild steel(polished) He <25 20 2.9 1..35 100 [80]
Ti SS 304(polished) He <25 20 2.9 1.35 100 [80]
Ti Martenstitial free (sandblasted) N2 44 450 2 2 100 [119]
Ti Ti N2 29 300–800 3; 4 [119]
Ti Ti N2 16; 22 600 2.4 [120]
Ti Ti He 16 600 1.5 [120]
Ti Ti6Al4V He 5–29 260 1.6 3.8 90 [121]
Zn Al6061(grit blasted) He 17; 45 260 2 [122]
Zn Zn(polished) N2 5.2–26.4 320 2 2 100 [123]
Zn Mild steel(grit blasted) He 5.2–26.4 140 0.5 2 100 [123]
Zn Mild steel(grit blasted) N2 5.2–26.4 165–410 2 2 100 [123]
Al2319 Mild steel(sand blasted) Air <63.8 250 2.8 2.7 170 [124]
Ti Mild steel(sand blasted) Air <38.9 250 2.8 2.7 170 [124]
Cu Mild steel(sand blasted) Air <98.5 250 2.8 2.7 170 [124]
Al Steel(33-3300C grit blasted) N2 36 33–500 0.6 [125]
Zn Steel(33-2450C grit blasted) N2 13 33–500 0.6 [125]
Sn Steel(33-800C grit blasted) N2 10 33–80 0.6 [125]
Al Al Air 53–75 315 2 2.8 [126]
Zn Al Air 45– 315 2 2.8 [126]
Al Al Air 90 290–340 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Al Bronze Air 9–40 290–340 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Fe Al Air ≤45 480–590 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Fe Bronze Air ≤445 480–590 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Cu Al Air ≤445 480–590 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Cu Bronze Air ≤445 480–590 1.5–2 2.8 [127]
Cu Cu N2 10–33 150 1 2.6 [128]
Cu 316L SS N2 10–33 150 1 2.6 [128]
Ni Cu N2 10–33 150 1 2.6 [128]
Cu SS(sand blasted) N2 15–37 220 2 2 100 [129]
Ti SS(polished) N2 37–44 240 2 2 100 [129]
SS 316L SS 304(grit blasted) He 16–44 150–300 1.5–3 [130]
Iron 101 SS 304(grit blasted) N2 15–44 200–300 1–3 [130]
Ti Mild steel(grit blasted) air 5–45 250 2.8 2.7 170 [131]
Ti Mild steel(grit blasted) N2 5–45 263 2 2 100 [131]
Ti6Al4V Mild steel(grit blasted) Air 5–90 520 2.8 2.7 170 [131]
Al Mild steel(grit blasted) Air 5–63 520 2.8 2.7 170 [131]
Al-12Siat 1500C Al6061 T6(grit blasted) He 5–65 500 3 [132]
Al-5Sn Steel(grit blasted) He; N2 20 300 0.7 [133]
Al-5Sn Al6061 N2 20 500 3 [133]
Al-10Sn Mild steel(grit blasted) He; N2 15 300 0.7 [133]
Al-10Sn Cu (pickled)
Al6061((pickled)
He; N2 15.2 300 0.7 [134]
Al-20Sn SUS304 (pickled) He; N2 13.8 300 0.7 [134]
Al-13Co-26Ce Al(grit blasted) He 23 200–370 1.7 2 [135]
Cu-2Ag-0.5Zr AlSl 4130(grit blasted) He 27 500 1.6–2.6 2.7 [136]
CuCrAl GRCop-84 He 10–25 300–500 1.5–2.5 [137]
Cu-Sn SS(sandblasted) He 48 520 2 2 100 [138]
Cu—6Sn Mild steel Air 28 500 3 6 170 [139]
Cu-8Sn Mild steel Air 17 500 3 6 170 [139]
Diamalloy Mild steel(polished) N2 <50 800 [140,141]
Ti2AlC Al6061 N2 25–40 500–800 3.8 [142]
Ti2AlC Steel(grit blasted) N2 25–40 600–800 3.4–3.9 [142]
Al2O3 Al2O3 Air 0.5 20 0.4 1 × 1 5 [143]
SiC Inconel 625Cleaned Air 6–33 280 0.6–0.8   [41]
WO3 Si He 30–50 300 0.7 4 × 6 [44]
PPA HDPE Air 150–250 20 0.075 5.2 200 [51]
CoNiCrAlY Al6061(grit blasted) He 5–37 550 2 2 270 [144]
MCrAiY-Re Ni(cleaned) N2 10–40 800 4 [145]
WC-12Co SS(sand blasted) N2 9; 13; 17 750 2.4 2 100 [146]
WC-12Co WC-12Co N2 9; 13; 17 750 2.4 2 100 [146]
WC-12Co Al7075 T6(polished) N2 10–30 800 3 [146]
WC-17Co Al7075 T6(polished) N2 10–30 800 4.4 [146]
WC-12Co SS SUS 304(grit blasted) N2 15–45 700 3.4 [147]
WC-17Co SS SUS 304(grit blasted) He 15–45 600 1.2–1.5 [147]
WC-17Co SS(cleaned) He ∼30 600 3–4 [148]
WC_25Co Al7075 T6(polished) N2 32 800 3–4 [149]
WC_25Co Steel(polished) N2 32 800 3.4 [149]
WC_CoCr Al(grit blasted) He 34 ± 17 550 1.7 [150]