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The polymerization of Echinococcus granulosus α9- and β4-tubulin. (a) Spectrophotometric analysis of polymerization of E. granulosus α9- and β4-tubulin at different concentrations. (b) Confocal scanning laser micrographs of the polymerization product of recombinant tubulin showing immune reactivity to anti-α-tubulin/Alexa-Fluor 488 antibody and anti-β-tubulin/Alexa-Fluor 647 antibody. (I): Phase contrast view, (II): α-tubulin immuno-reactivity, (III): β-tubulin immune-reactivity. (c) The microtubule-like structure resulting from polymerization of pure expressed α9- and β4-tubulin under appropriate conditions in vitro.