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Research Article

Table 1

List of hosts and their insect ectoparasites. Abbreviation: Prev. = prevalence = number of birds parasitized/number of birds examined, Ny = nymphs, C = Ceratophyllidae, H = Hippoboscidae, M = Menoponidae, P = Philopteridae, R = Ricinidae; FM = gynandromorphs.

Bird species Ectoparasite family/species São Miguel (April)
Santa Maria (September)
Graciosa (September)
Prev. Ny Prev. Ny Prev. Ny
Family Fringillidae
Carduelis carduelis parva Tschusi, 1901 0/2
Fringilla coelebs moreletti Pucheran, 1859
 C/Dasypsyllus gallinulae (Dale, 1878)** 3/27 0 3 0/14 2/61 1 1
 H/Ornithomya avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758)** 0/27 0/14 4/61 1 5
 H/Ornithoica turdi (Olivier in Latreille, 1811)** 0/27 0/14 7/61 2 6
 M/Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838)** 1/27 0 0 8 0/14 29/61 160 235 1448*
 P/Brueelia kluzi Balát, 1955** 0/27 0/14 21/61 11 11 17
Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) 0/19 0/11
Family Muscicapidae
Erithacus rubecula rubecula (Linnaeus, 1758)
 C/Dasypsyllus gallinulae (Dale, 1878) 1/10 0 1 0/6 0/3
 H/Ornithoica turdi (Olivier in Latreille, 1811)*** 0/10 2/6 1 1 0/3
 P/Guimaraesiella tristis (Giebel, 1874) 2/10 23 38 12 0/6 0/3
 R/Ricinus rubeculae (Schrank, 1776) 1/10 0 5 4 0/6 0/3
Family Passeridae
Passer domesticus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
 C/Ceratophyllus (Ceratophyllus) gallinae (Schrank, 1803) 2/16 0 2 1/1 0 1 0/2
 H/Ornithomya avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) 1/16 0 1 0/1 0/2
Family Regulidae
Regulus regulus azoricus Seebohm, 1883
 P/Philopterus gustafssoni Najer et al., 2020 5/5 12 7 38
Regulus regulus sanctaemariae Vaurie, 1954
 P/Philopterus gustafssoni Najer et al., 2020 1/10 0 1 0
Family Sylviidae
Sylvia atricapilla gularis Alexander, 1898
 C/Dasypsyllus gallinulae (Dale, 1878)** 4/17 7 0 0/24 0/5
 M/Myrsidea sylviae Sychra & Literak, 2008 112/17 13 7 21 112/24 6 4 13 22/5 3 1 0
 P/Guimaraesiella tovornikae (Balát, 1981) 122/17 39 63 65 52/24 12 10 16 32/5 5 3 6
Family Turdidae
Turdus merula azorensis Hartert, 1905
 C/Ceratophyllus (Ceratophyllus) sp.*** 0/11 1/18 1 0 0/4
 C/Dasypsyllus gallinulae (Dale, 1878)** 2/11 1 1 0/18 0/4
 H/Ornithomya avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758)** 1/11 0 1 0/18 0/4
 H/Ornithoica turdi (Olivier in Latreille, 1811)** 1/11 0 1 9/18 3 15 3FM 4/4 0 5 1FM
 M/Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838)** 23/11 0 1 1 1/18 0 1 0 3/4 7 7 11
 P/Guimaraesiella amsel (Eichler, 1951)** 8/11 29 89 77 1/18 0 1 0 11/4 2 2 4
 P/Philopterus turdi (Denny, 1842)** 11/11 0 1 0 0/18 0/4
 P/Sturnidoecus sp.*** 0/11 44/18 3 4 0 0/4
 P/Turdinirmus merulensis (Denny, 1842)** 0/11 84/18 4 21 2 0/4
Siphonaptera total 12/107 8 7 2/84 1 1 2/75 1 1
Hippoboscidae total 3/107 0 3 11/84 4 16 3FM 15/75 3 16 1FM
Phthiraptera total 32/107 116 211 226 25/84 25 41 31 37/75 188 259 1486*
1

Previous chewing lice species was found on the same host/s;

2

Co-occurrence of both species of chewing lice was found on nine birds in São Miguel, three birds in Santa Maria, and two birds in Graciosa.

3

Guimaraesiella amsel was found on the same hosts;

4

Co-occurrence of both species of chewing lice was found on three birds;

*

104 males, 135 females and 1078 nymphs were collected and at least 60 other specimens were observed on one host;

**

New parasite-host record for examined subspecies of host;

***

New parasite-host record for examined species of host.