Open Access
Review Article

Table 2

Insecticidal activity.

Country Part Extraction Main compound Application Insect Activity Ref
Brazil NS NS NS Contact (contaminated surface: filter paper and grain) Sitophilus zeamais (Maize weevil) (Coleoptera) Adulticide (filter paper: LC50=0.6μL/cm2, LC95=1.38μL/cm2; grain: LC50=0.64μL/g, LC95=12.74μL/g) [59]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Aerial parts SD Dillapiole (73.97%), safrole (3.92%), sarisan (2.84%) Fumigation; Contact; Topical Sitophilus zeamais (Maize weevil) (Coleoptera) Adulticide (fumigation: LC50=0.56μL/g; contact: LC50=2.87μL/cm2; topical: LD50=0.03μL/g of insect) [104]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Aerial parts SD Dillapiole (69.3, 79.9 and 85.4%) Topical Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid) (Hemipteran) Nymphicide (dillapiole 69.3%=95.71% mortality; 79.9%=97.14%; 85.4%=98.57%) [106]
Residual contact Adulticide (69.3%=46.25%; 79.9%=88.75%; 85.4%=96.25%)
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Aerial parts SD Dillapiole, safrole, sarisan Topical; Contact (contaminated surface) Cerotoma tingomarianus (Coleoptera) Adulticide (topical: LD50=0.002 mL/mg of insect; contact: LC50=0.06 mL/cm2) [26]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves HD NS Fumigation; Callosobruchus maculatus (Cowpea weevil) (Coleoptera) Adulticide (LC50=169.50μL/L air); Repellence to oviposition (0.5 mL/kg reduced 66.06%) [72]
Repellent Ovicide (68.63% at 0.5 mL/kg); Repellence (attraction reduced±5%)
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves HD Dillapiole (73.97%) Topical; Contact (contaminated surface) Tenebrio molitor (Mealworm) (Coleoptera) Larvicide (topical: LD50=0.009μL/mg of insect; contact: LC50=0.033μL/cm2) [27]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves SD Dillapiole (71.9%) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: LD50=1.07μL/mg of insect; residual: LC50=1169.70ppm) [30]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves SD Dillapiole (71.9%) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: LD50=0.012μL/mg of insect; residual: LD50=0.00011μL/cm2) [29]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves SD Dillapiole (71.9%) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: LD50=0.00011μL/insect; residual: LC50=1169.7ppm) [28]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) Leaves SD Dillapiole (71.9%) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: LD50=0.00011μL/mg of insect; residual: LC50=0.012μL/cm2) [31]
Brazil, Acre (Embrapa Acre) NS NS Dillapiole (73.97%), safrole (3.92%), sarisan (2.84%) Contact Callosobruchus maculatus (Cowpea weevil) (Coleoptera) Adulticide (100%=50μL/20g) [77]
Ovicide (>90%=50μL/20g); Blocking egg-hatching (>90%=50μL/20g)
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves HD *Dillapiole Contact (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=200μg/mL) [79]
Pupaecide (LC50=200μg/mL)
Brazil, Amazonas (INPA) Leaves HD *Dillapiole Contact Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (Diptera) Larvicide (400μg/mL=70%, 2000μg/mL=100%) [1]
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves HD Dillapiole (52.37%), γ-terpinene (8.98%) Contact Cerataphis lataniae (Palm aphid) (Hemiptera) Adulticide (LC50=219.4μg/mL, LC90=864.8μg/mL; loaded nanoparticles 500μg/mL=90%) [94]
Contact (gelatine nanoparticles)
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves HD Dillapiole (52.37%), γ-terpinene (8.98%) Contact; Contact (gelatine nanoparticles) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=68.2μg/mL, LC90=125.3μg/mL; loaded nanoparticles 500μg/mL=100%) [94]
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves SD *Dillapiole Contact Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Adulticide (LC50=0.381μL/cm2, LC90=0.575μL/cm2) [96]
Brazil, Mato Groso Leaves HD Myristicin (30.03%), aromadendrene (9.20%), dillapiole (8.43%), α-serinene (7.31%), tridecane (6.26%), γ-elemene (4.58%), o-cymene (4.20%) Topical Euschistus heros (Brown stink bug) (Hemiptera) Adulticide (LD50=36.23mg; LD90=50.42mg) [19]
Brazil, Mato Groso Leaves HD Myristicin, isomyristicin, asaricim, dillapiole, isocroweacin Ingestion; Topical Helicoverpa armigera (Cotton bollworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (ingestion: 1st instar LT50=<14.20days, 3rd LT50=<16.89; topical: 1st LT50=<14.68, 3rd LT50=<10.73) [88]
Brazil, Mato Groso Leaves HD Myristicin (30.03%), aromadendrene (9.20%), dillapiole (8.43%), α-serine (7.31%), tridecane (6.26%), γ-elemene (4.58), o-cymene (4.20%) Contact and Immersion (eggs); Topical Euschistus heros (Brown stink bug) (Hemiptera) Ovicide (Immersion: LC50=15.64mg/mL; Contact: LC50=24.29mg/mL) [103]
Nymphicide (LD50=11.37mg/mL; LD90=38.95mg/mL)
Adulticide (>20mg/mL: LT50=<6 days)
Brazil, Mato Groso Leaves SD Dillapiole, z-carpacin, myristicin Topical Tibraca limbativentris (Stink bug) (Hemiptera) Ovicide (LC50=2.499%) [49]
Brazil, Mato Groso Leaves SD Dillapiole, myristicin, z-carpacin Topical; Ingestion Chrysodeixis includens (Soybean looper) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (at 24h: ingestion: LC50=3.5%, LC90=6.2%; topical: LC50=16.2% LC90=30.0%) [86]
Brazil, Minas Gerais Leaves HD 1,8-cineole (53.9%), α-pinene (12.7%), β-pinene (8.5%), trans-ocimene (5.7%) Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (250ppm=40%, 500ppm=100%) [70]
Brazil, Pará Aerial parts HD Dillapiole (64. 4%) Contact (contaminated surface) Solenopsis saevissima (Fire ant) (Hymenoptera) Adulticide (LC50= 58.4mg/L) [99]
Brazil, Pará Leaves HD Asaricine, myristicin, dillapiole, (E)-β-ocimene, piperitone Spraying Anticarsia gemmatalis (Velvetbean caterpillar) (Lepidoptera) Ovicidal (LC50=1.9%, LC90=2.8%) [50]
Brazil, Pará NS NS Dillapiole (73.97%), safrole (3.92%), sarisan (2.84%) Topical Callosobruchus maculatus (Cowpea weevil) (Coleoptera) Ovicide (100%=0.5 L/t); Block egg-hatching (100%=0.5l/t) [76]
Brazil, Paraiba Dried fruit HD β-pinene (32.7%), E-caryophyllene (17.1%) Contact (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=30.2μg/mL) [21]
Brazil, Rondonia Leaves HD (E)-isocroweacin (29.52%) apiole (28.62%) elemicin (7.82%) Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=46ppm; LC90=156ppm; 100%=500ppm) [87]
Colombia, Chocó Leaves HD Dillapiole (48,2%), 1,8 cineole (11,4%) Contact (contaminated surface) Triblium castaneum (Red flour beetle) (Coleoptera) Repellence (1μL/cm2= 99% for 2h) [46]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Dillapiole (82.0%) Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=57mg/L; LC905=75mg/L) [52]
Cuba, La Habana NS SD NS Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=36.0mg/mL) [60]
Adulticide (60mg/mL LT50=0.19h)
Cuba, La Habana NS SD NS Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=35.3mg/mL) [60]
Adulticide (30mg/mL LT50=0.15h)
Cuba, La Habana NS SD NS Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=57.3mg/mL) [60]
Adulticide (40mg/mL LT50=0.19h)
Cuba, La Habana NS SD NS Fumigation (dilution in water) Culex quinquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50=59.5mg/mL) [60]
Adulticide (60mg/mLLT50= 0.17h)
Cuba, La Palma NS HD NS Topical Musca domestica (Housefly) (Diptera) Adulticide (LC50=0.04%; LC95=0.33%) [53]
Ecuador, Pastaza, Aerial parts HD Dillapiole (48.2%), trans-ocimene (7.5%), β-caryophyllene (17.0%) Fumigation (dilution in water) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Larvicide (LC50= 23.73ppm; LC90= 35.51ppm; LC99= 49.31ppm) [90]
Malaysia NS HD (E)-β-ocimene, trans- caryophyllene, (z)-β- ocimene, β-pinene, α-pinene, germacrena-D, piperitone, γ-terpinene, limonene Contact Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) (Blattodea) Adulticide (80,000ppm; females LC50=5.31h, LT90=14.9h, males LT50=2.08h, LT90=5.14h) [54]
Nymphicide (80,000ppm, LT50=4.68h, LT90=28.71)
Malaysia, Selangor Leaves HD *** apiole (38.01%), methyl isobutyl ketone (8.26%), piperitone (3.34%), caryophyllene (2.45%) Topical (on human body) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Repellence to human bodies (>65% at 4h post-application) [58]
Malaysia, Selangor Leaves HD NS Spraying Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Adulticide (LC50=5.6%; LC90=12.3%) [63]
Malaysia, Selangor Leaves HD NS Spraying Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Adulticide (LC50=5.5%; LC90=12.7%) [63]
Malaysia, Selangor Leaves HD ** NS Topical (human body) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Repellence to human bodies (ED50=0.4%; ED905=1.7%) [42]
Malaysia, Selangor Leaves HD NS Topical (human body) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Repellence to human bodies (60″ exposure: ED=1.5g/cm2) [65]
Malaysia, Selangor NS HD NS Topical (human body) Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever mosquito) (Diptera) Repellence to human bodies (90″ exposure: ED50=1.95μg/cm2; ED90=18.1μg/cm2) [64]
NS NS SD *Dillapiole Contact; Residual contact Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle) (Coleoptera) Larvicide (0.1ppm=92%) [55]
*

Only the main compound was tested;

**

Ointment, cream and gel;

***

Dried over anhydrous magnesium sulphate then formulated into Carbopol 934 hydrogels, Aerial parts: Leaves and Branches, HD: hydro-distillation, SD: steam-distillation, NS: not specified, EO: essential oil, LC50: lethal concentration for 50%, LC90: lethal concentration for 90%, LD50: lethal dose for 50%, LD90: lethal dose for 90%, LT50: lethal time for 50%, LT90: lethal time for 90%, ED50: effective dose for 50%, ED90: effective dose for 90%, ED95: effective dose for 95%.