Open Access
Review Article

Table 4

Antiparasitic activity.

Country Part(s) Extraction Main compound(s) Application(s) Parasite Activity(ies) Ref
Brazil, São Paulo Leaves HD Dillapiole Immersion Leishmania amazonensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – growth inhibition of promastigote (IC50=59.4μm) [73]
Brazil, Santa Catarina Leaves HD (Z)-β-ocimene (7%), (E)-β-ocimene (13.9), safrole (6.2%), α-humulene (4.9%), α-humulene (20.9%), γ-cadinene (5.5%), spathulenol (5.3%) Incubation Leishmania amazonensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote (IC50=25.9μg/mL) and antiamastigote (IC50=36.2μg/mL) activity [7]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Leishmania amazonensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote activity (IC50=23.8μg/mL) [68]
Brazil, Minas Gerais (UFLA) Leaves HD Nerolidol Incubation Leishmania braziliensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote activity (IC50/24h=77.9μg/mL) [105]
Brazil, São Paulo Leaves HD Dillapiole Immersion Leishmania braziliensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – growth inhibition of promastigote (IC50=69.3μm) [73]
Cuba, La Habana Aerial parts SD NS Incubation Leishmania braziliensis (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote activity (50.8μg/mL=100%) [66]
*Dillapiole Incubation Leishmania chagasi (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote activity (50μg/mL=99%) [25]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Leishmania donovani (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antipromastigote activity (IC50=7.7μg/mL) [68]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Leishmania infantum (Euglenozoa) Leishmanicidal – Antiamastigote activity (IC50=8.1μg/mL) [68]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Trypanosoma brucei (Euglenozoa) Antitrypanosomal activity (IC50=2.0μg/mL) [68]
Brazil, Minas Gerais (UFLA) Leaves HD Linalool, nerolidol Incubation Trypanosoma cruzi (Euglenozoa) Antitrypanosomal – activity against epimastigote (IC50/24h=84.7μg/mL at 28°C), amastigote (IC50/24h=9μg/mL at 37°C), cell-derived trypomastigote (IC50/24h=2.8 and 3.8μg/mL at 28°C and 4°C, respectively) and metacyclic trypomastigote (IC50/24h=12.1μg/mL at 28°C) [15]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Trypanosoma cruzi (Euglenozoa) Antitrypanosomal activity (IC50=2.1μg/mL) [68]
Cuba, La Habana Aerial parts SD NS Incubation Trichomonas vaginalis (Metamonada) Trichomonacide (100μg/mL=100%) [66]
Brazil, Ceará Aerial parts (leaves and branches) SD Dillapiole (76.5%), piperitone (6.1%), terpinen-4-ol (2.3%), myristicin (2.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (1.5%), γ-terpinene (1.3%), germacrene-D (1.2%), apiole (1.2%) Contact Plasmodium falciparum (Apicomplexa) Antiplasmodial activity (72h exposure, W2: 1.30ng/mL=100%; Dd2: 10.30mg/mL=77%) [62]
Cuba, La Habana Leaves HD Piperitone (23.7%), camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%) Incubation Plasmodium falciparum (Apicomplexa) Antiplasmodial activity (IC50=1.3μg/mL) [68]
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves HD dillapiole (76.2%) Contact Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda) Egg-hatching inhibition (IC50=5.72mg/mL); Blocking larvae development (IC50=0.10mg/mL, IC90=0.34mg/mL) [35]
Brazil, Minas Gerais Leaves HD 1,8-cineole (55.8%), α-terpineol (5.9%), trans-ocimene (4.8%), β-pinene (4.7%), α-pinene (4.5%), bicyclogermacrene (4.4%) Contact Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda) Egg-hatching inhibition (LC90=8.9mg/mL) [71]
Brazil, Amazonas Leaves SD Dillapiole (92%) Contact (ingestion of medicated food by fishes) Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) Larvicide (64 mL/kg=76.21% at 15days treatment) [18]

*Only the main compound was tested, Aerial parts: leaves and branches, HD: hydro-distillation, SD: steam-distillation, NS: not specified, EO: essential oil, LC90: lethal concentration for 90%, IC50: inhibitory concentration for 50%, IC90: inhibitory concentration for 90%.