Open Access
Review Article

Table 5

Synergetic properties of dillapiole along with chemical insecticides.

Country Part Extraction Main compound Application Insect Activity Ref
Brazil, Acre Leaves SD dillapiole (71.9%)+(cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin, esfenvarelate) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: 0.54μL EO: +0.0553μL Cypermethrin LD50=0.0093μL/mg of insect; +0.000733μL Zeta-Cypermethrin LD50=0.00017μL/mg; +0.000327μL Permethrin LD50=0.000068μL/mg; +0.2μL Esfenvarelate LD50=0.053μL/mg)(residual: 584.9ppm EO: +256.70ppm Cypermethrin LC50=3.52ppm; +747.80ppm Zeta-Cypermethrin LC50=617.00ppm; +246.20ppm Permethrin LC50=14.30ppm; +48756.10ppm Esfenvarelate LC50=3640.70ppm) [30]
Brazil, Acre Leaves SD dillapiole (71.9%)+(α-cypermethrin, β-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, γ-cyhalothrin) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: 0.006μL EO: +0.0019μL α-Cypermethrin LD50=0.0000079μL/mg of insect; +0.015μL β-Cypermethrin LD50=0.0017μL/mg; +0.0022μL Fenpropathrin LD50=0.000064μL/mg; +0.0011μL γ-Cyhalothrin LD50=0.00011μL/mg) (residual: 0.000055μL EO: +0.0000016 α-Cypermethrin LD50=0.00000021μL/cm2; +0.0000015μL β-Cypermethrin LD50=0.0000016μL/cm2; +0.00000062 Fenpropathrin LD50=0.00000018μL/cm2; +0.00000019μL γ-Cyhalothrin LD50=0.000000033μL/cm2) [29]
Brazil, Acre Leaves SD dillapiole (71.9%)+(thiamethoxam/γ-cyhalothrin, γ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, β-cyfluthrin, teflubenzurom/α-cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: 0.000055μL EO: +0.000014μL Thiamethoxam/γ-Cyhalothrin LD50=0.0000016μL/insect; +0.00000038μL γ-Cyhalothrin LD50=0.000000065μL/insect; +0.00016μL Imidacloprid/β-Cyfluthrin LD50=0.000055μL/insect; +0.0000055μL β-Cyfluthrin LD50=0.000001μL/insect; +0.000011μL Teflubenzurom/α-Cypermethrin LD50=0.0000015μL/insect; +0.000012μL α-Cypermethrin LD50=0.0000016μL/insect) (residual: 584.85ppm EO: +183.4ppm Thiamethoxam/γ-Cyhalothrin LC50=74.1ppm; +1026.4ppm γ-Cyhalothrin LC50=11.7ppm; +8455.2ppm Imidacloprid/β-Cyfluthrin LC50=1512.6ppm; +927.3ppm β-Cyfluthrin LC50=16.0ppm; +1895ppm Teflubenzurom/α-Cypermethrin LC50=0.8ppm; +206.3ppm α-Cypermethrin LC50=10.1ppm) [28]
Brazil, Acre Leaves SD dillapiole (71.9%)+(profenofos, fenitrothione, chlorpyrifos, metomil) Topical and residual contact Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (Lepidoptera) Larvicide (topical: 0.000055μL EO: +0.000038μL Profenofos LD50=0.0048μL/mg of insect; +0.00045μL Fenitrothione LD50=0.000071μL/mg; +0.000025μL Chlorpyrifos LD50=0.00001μL/mg; +0.0000067μL Metomil LD50=0.0000061μL/mg) (residual: 0.006μL OE: +0.0068 Profenofos μL LC50=0.0013μL/cm2; +0.0017μL Fenitrothione LC50=0.00044μL/cm2; +0.000053μL Chlorpyrifos LC50=0.000016μL/cm2; +0.0083μL Metomil LC50=0.0048μL/cm2) [31]

SD: steam-distillation, EO: essential oil, LC₅₀: lethal concentration for 50%, LD₅₀: lethal dose for 50%.