Topical Issue - Space Weather research in the Digital Age and across the full data lifecycle
Open Access
Research Article

Table 2

Table showing input features of the model, transformations used (if any), and which models use each feature. The given transformation is only used prior to fitting the Gaussian process model. Box-Cox → B(x) = sgn(x) × loge x and Erf → erf(x) = .

Features Symbol Units Transformation Model
Anti-sunward component of IMF B x nT Box-Cox All
Transverse component of IMF nT Box-Cox All
IMF clock angle radian Box-Cox All
Bulk velocity km s−1 Box-Cox All
Number density n m−3 Box-Cox All
Electron temperature T K Box-Cox All
Dynamic pressure P dyn Nm−2 Box-Cox All
Mach number M a 1 Box-Cox All
Plasma beta β 1 Erf All
Historical K p 1 Box-Cox All
Background X-ray B Wm2 None LSTM c ,
X-ray flux ratio R 1 None LSTM c ,