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Fig. 8

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Dayside field-aligned protons in the southward IMF simulation at t = 2119 s. (a) Integral energy flux. (b) Mean energy. The fluxes and energies are calculated for protons with pitch angle α < 5° in the northern hemisphere and α > 175° in the southern hemisphere. The white dashed line shows the separation between hemispheres. The black lines indicate magnetic field lines.