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Fig. 9

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Dayside field-aligned protons in the northward IMF simulation at t = 1938 s. (a) Integral energy flux of α < 5° protons. (b) Mean energy of α < 5° protons. (c) Integral energy flux of α > 175° protons. (c) Mean energy of α > 175° protons. The black lines indicate magnetic field lines. α: pitch angle.